International Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement Upsc

A typical day for the crew begins with a wake-up call at 6:00 a.m., followed by after-bed activities and a morning inspection of the station. The crew then eats breakfast and attends a daily planning conference with Mission Control before starting work around 8:10 a.m. This is the first scheduled exercise of the day, after which the team will continue to work until 1:05 p.m. After an hour-long lunch break, the afternoon consists of more exercise and work before the crew performs their pre-sleep activities from 7:30 p.m., including dinner and a crew conference. Sleep time begins at 9:30 p.m. Typically, the crew works ten hours a day on a weekday and five hours on Saturday, the rest of the time to relax or catch up. [288] Space debris is located remotely from the ground and the station crew can be notified. [349] If necessary, thrusters on the Russian orbital segment can alter the station`s rotational height and avoid debris. These debris prevention manoeuvres (DAM) are not uncommon when computational models show that debris is approaching a certain distance from the threat. By the end of 2009, ten DAMs had been implemented.

[350] [351] [352] Normally, an increase in rotational speed of about 1 m/s is used to increase the orbit by one or two kilometres. If necessary, the altitude can also be lowered, although such a manoeuvre wastes greenhouse gases. [351] [353] If a threat of orbital debris is detected too late to perform a safe DAM, the station crew closes all hatches aboard the station and retreats to their Soyuz spacecraft to evacuate if the station is severely damaged by debris. This partial evacuation took place on March 13, 2009, June 28, 2011, March 24, 2012 and June 16, 2015. [354] [355] A boat fire or toxic gas leak are other potential hazards. The ammonia is used in the station`s external radiators and could eventually escape into the pressure modules. [329] The station`s large solar panels create a large potential voltage difference between the station and the ionosphere. This could lead to arcs of light through insulating surfaces and conductive surface gravel, as the ions are accelerated by the space probe`s plasma mantle.

To mitigate this, plasma protection units (PUS) create electrical trajectories between the station and the surrounding plasma field. [191] Pirs (Russian: `Pier`) and Poisk (Russian: `Search`) are Russian airlock modules that each have two identical traps. A hatch opening outwards on the Mir space station failed after opening too quickly after loosening, as there was a small air pressure in the airlock. [112] All EVA traps on the ISS open inwards and are pressure-tight. Pirs was used to store, maintain and renovate Orlan`s Russian costumes and provided the crew with slightly more cumbersome American costumes with emergency access. The extreme ports of reception of the two castles allow the docking of the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft as well as the automatic transfer of greenhouse gases to and from storage on the ROS. [113] In November 2019, researchers reported that astronauts aboard the ISS had serious blood circulation and clot problems, based on a six-month study of 11 healthy astronauts. The findings could influence space in the long term, including a mission to Mars, according to the researchers. [306] [307] Below is a graph of the station`s main components. Blue zones are pressed sections accessible by the crew without spacesuits. The station`s oppressive overstructure is marked in red.

Other pressed components are yellow. The node of the unit is directly connected to the Destiny laboratory. For reasons of clarity, they are shown spaced. Currently, 8 host ports are available for space vehicle visits.

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